鋼號 Grade 化學成份（Chemical composition）％ Ç Mn Si S P Cr Other CH1A ≦0.012 ≦0.15 0.05 0.03 0.03 Alt≦0.06 CH1T ≦0.012 ≦0.15 0.05 0.03 0.03 - Ti 0.04-0.10 SAE1008 ≦0.10 ≦0.60 0.1 0.035 0.03 Al≥0.020 SWRCH42A 0.39-0.46 0.30-0.60 0.15-0.35 0.03 0.03 ≦0.25 Cu≦0.20；Ni≦0.30 45# 0.42-0.50 0.50-0.80 0.17-0.37 0.035 0.035 ≦0.25 Cu≦0.25；Ni≦0.30
Blind rivets, commonly referred to as pop rivets, (POP® is the registered brand name of the original blind rivet manufacturer owned by Emhart Teknologies) are tubular and are supplied with a mandrelthrough the center. The rivet assembly is inserted into a hole drilled through the parts to be joined and a specially designed tool is used to draw the mandrel into the rivet. This expands the blind end of the rivet and then the mandrel snaps off. These types of blind rivets have non-locking mandrels and are sometimes avoided for critical structural joints because the mandrels may fall out, due to vibration or other reasons, leaving a hollow rivet that has a significantly lower load carrying capability than solid rivets. Furthermore, because of the mandrel they are more prone to failure from corrosion and vibration. Unlike solid rivets, blind rivets can be inserted and fully installed in a joint from only one side of a part or structure, "blind" to the opposite side.
Prior to the adoption of blind rivets, installation of a solid rivet typically required access to both sides of the assembly: a rivet hammer on one side and a bucking bar on the other side. In 1916 Royal Navy reservist and engineer Hamilton Neil Wylie filed a patent for an "improved means of closing tubular rivets" (granted May 1917). In 1922 Wylie joined the British aircraft manufacturer Armstrong-Whitworth Ltd to advise on metal construction techniques; here he continued to develop his rivet design with a further 1927 patent that incorporated the pull through mandrel, and allowed the rivet to be used blind. By 1928, the George Tucker Eyelet company produced a 'cup' rivet based on the design. It required a separate GKN mandrel and the rivet body to be hand assembled prior to use for the building of the Siskin III aircraft. Together with Armstrong-Whitworth, the Geo. Tucker Co. further modified the rivet design to produce a one piece unit incorporating mandrel and rivet. This product was later developed in Aluminium and trademarked as the 'POP' rivet. The United Shoe Machinery Co. produced the design in the US as inventors such as Carl Cherry and Lou Huck experimented with other techniques for expanding solid rivets.
Due to this feature, blind rivets are mainly used when access to the joint is only available from one side. The rivet is placed in a drilled hole and is set by pulling the mandrel head into the rivet body, expanding the rivet body and causing it to flare against the reverse side. As the head of the mandrel reaches the face of the blind side material, the pulling force is resisted, and at a predetermined force, the mandrel snaps at its break point, also called blind setting. A tight joint formed by the rivet body remains, the head of the mandrel remains encapsulated at the blind side, although variations of this are available, and the mandrel stem is ejected.
They are available in flat head, countersunk head, and modified flush head with standard diameters of 1/8, 5/32 and 3/16 inch. Blind rivets are made from soft aluminum alloy, steel (including stainless steel), copper, and Monel.
There are also structural blind rivet, which are designed to take shear and tensile loads.